ASOR Cultural Heritage Initiatives Monthly Report (May 2017)

ASOR Cultural Heritage Initiatives (CHI)
Safeguarding the Heritage of the Near East Initiative

May 2017 Monthly Report

S-IZ-100-17-CA021
By Michael D. Danti, Marina Gabriel, Susan Penacho, William Raynolds, Allison Cuneo, Kyra Kaercher, Darren Ashby

* This report is based on research conducted by the “Safeguarding the Heritage of the Near East Initiative.” Monthly reports reflect reporting from a variety of sources and may contain unverified material. As such, they should be treated as preliminary and subject to change.

Executive Summary

During the May 2017 reporting period, zones of military control in northern Syria and northern Iraq significantly shifted following heavy combat operations and intense aerial bombardment. SARG forces recaptured territory from opposition forces in Syria, while Iraqi Security Forces regained significant areas from ISIL. The intense combat kinetics resulted in damage to cultural assets, and the fluid situation complicated emergency response efforts across a large, heavily populated area. Ultimately, ISIL’s diminishing operational capacities and territorial control will strengthen and enhance regional cultural property protection and heritage management efforts.

Iraqi Security Forces continued their push to reclaim the remaining ISIL-controlled neighborhoods in the city of Mosul, including the historically significant Old City. Civilian casualties in Mosul were significantly elevated, and media outlets and humanitarian observers revealed that ISIL fighters continued to target evacuating noncombatants. As ISIL has lost territory in northern Iraq, we have noted an increase in acts of retributory violence perpetrated by retreating ISIL extremists against the local population and cultural assets. Previously ISIL justified such actions through its extremist ideology, but such retributory acts expose the organization’s intrinsic criminality.

In Syria, negotiations between Russia, Turkey, and Iran resulted in an attempted implementation of de-escalation zones. Despite this agreement, clashes and aerial bombardment continued in these same areas. In contrast, Idlib Governorate, which had been under constant aerial bombardment in previous months, was relatively untouched in May, with airstrikes focusing on opposition-held areas of Rif Dimashq Governorate. Opposition forces controlling Rif Dimashq were not included in the agreement. It is too soon to determine whether this agreement significantly reduced damage to cultural assets in Syria. The commencement of direct Russian military involvement in Syria in September 2015 directly correlates with consistently higher monthly rates of combat damage to cultural sites, especially religious sites, in opposition held areas. Airstrikes and other military explosives caused a high percentage of these incidents. In sum, the timing, targeting, and military capabilities linked to this elevated period of heritage damage implicate Russian forces.

In newly pacified areas in Syria and Iraq, returnees initiated independent cleanup and restoration efforts at ancient and modern heritage sites. Civilians in the Old City of Aleppo, with limited involvement from Syrian government authorities, started debris removal and stabilized compromised structures.

In Libya, the primary threat to heritage sites continued to be rapid urban development at a time when heritage laws cannot be enforced. The current security conditions have allowed new developers to tear down historic buildings to make way for new construction.

Key Points

  • New video shows ISIL militants intentional destruction of antiquities in Deir ez-Zor Governorate, Syria. (ASOR CHI Incident Report SHI 17-0081)
  • An old house in Aleppo was purchased and is being dismantled for transport to Lebanon. (ASOR CHI Incident Report SHI 17-0086)
  • New photographs show damage to the Maltai Reliefs in Iraq. (ASOR CHI Incident Report IHI 17-0026)
  • New photographs were released of damage to the Mosul University Library. (ASOR CHI Incident Report IHI 17-0016 UPDATE)

Syria

During the reporting period, SARG and Russian aerial bombardment campaigns continued over opposition-held areas in Deir ez-Zor, Hama, Rif Dimashq, and Raqqa Governorates. ASOR CHI documented destruction and damage to two mosques in Rif Dimashq (see SHI 17-0082 and SHI 17-0084 in Appendix pp. 35–36, 39–41), and one episode of damage to mosques in each of the other governorates (see SHI 17-0083, SHI 17-0091, and SHI 17-0092 in Appendix pp. 37–38, 74–75). Local activist groups in Syria reported dozens of civilian casualties as a result of this aerial bombardment.

SARG forces continued to recapture territory from Syrian opposition forces. Following the May 20 final evacuation of opposition forces from the district of al-Waer, the Syrian regime now controls the entirety of Homs City.

ISIL continued to lose territory in former strongholds in Syria. The US-backed Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) recaptured the strategic city of al-Tabqa. The territory recaptured in this operation included the Tabqa Dam. ISIL is believed to be redeploying its forces in Syria and Iraq to Syria’s Deir ez-Zor Governorate where the organization controls large swathes of territory, including parts of the city of Deir ez-Zor.

As the SDF advanced toward the ISIL-held stronghold of Raqqa, US-led Coalition airstrikes increased over neighboring towns and villages. From May 1–6, five mosques were damaged in and around Raqqa (see SHI 17-0077, SHI 17-0078, SHI 17-0079, SHI 17-0080, and SHI 17-0085 in Appendix pp. 18–29, 42–43). Most of these mosques were reportedly rendered inoperable. ASOR CHI is continuing to investigate these incidents in order to confirm levels of damage. Local activist groups in Syria have reported dozens of civilian casualties as a result of this aerial bombardment.

ASOR CHI documented three cleanup and reconstruction efforts at sites located in the Old City of Aleppo (see SHI 17-0088, SHI 17-0089, SHI 17-0090, and SHI 17-0093 in Appendix pp. 58–73, 76–79). Local residents spearheaded these recovery efforts. These locals report damaged sites, mainly sites in the process of collapsing, to the Aleppo City Government officials, who then send engineers and other professionals to stabilize the buildings. The current objective appears to be the emergency stabilization and strengthening of standing remains. In the case of Khan Uch Khan, a 1500 CE gate, the support of the Aleppo Directorate of Antiquities was sought to undertake the removal of sculpture from around the gate for conservation and off-site storage. The sculptures will be reinstalled following the intended restoration of the gate’s facade. With regard to Aleppo’s large number of damaged mosques, initial reports indicate local residents and craftsmen are donating time to help reconstruct and stabilize the buildings. In sum, these initial reports on Aleppo’s revitalization highlight the important role of local stakeholders in emergency response and preserving cultural heritage.

One report may serve as an early warning regarding a growing trend of disassembling and selling historically significant private residences in the Old City of Aleppo (see SHI 17-0086 in Appendix pp. 44–52). A Lebanese businessman recently purchased an historic house (ca. 1600 CE) within the UNESCO World Heritage Site. According to media reports, the businessman then began to dismantle a wood paneled room, possibly in order to transport the architectural elements to his residence in Lebanon. When neighborhood residents saw workmen dismantling the paneling and loading it onto trucks, they notified officials in the Department of Antiquities, who halted the shipment. The director of the Department of Antiquities informed the Syrian Prime Minister, who will decide if the wood panels may be taken to Lebanon. ASOR CHI remains concerned as to new development threats and the removal of significant cultural property from UNESCO-protected sites in Syria, Iraq, and Libya. This case again demonstrates the crucial role of local stakeholders in preserving cultural heritage.

Iraq

Iraqi Security Forces (ISF), backed by US-led Coalition airstrikes, closed in on the last remaining ISIL strongholds in Mosul. The neighborhoods on the city’s west bank continue to sustain severe damage as a result of continuing aerial bombardment and on-the-ground clashes. This area contains a high density of historically significant sites. In the first half of May, ASOR CHI recorded seven mosques that were allegedly damaged by Iraqi and US-led Coalition forces (see IHI 17-0025, IHI 17-0029, IHI 17-0030, IHI 17-0031, IHI 17-0035, IHI 17-0036, and IHI 17-0037 in Appendix pp. 94–99, 113–118, 119–124, 156–161).

While military operations focus on retaking western Mosul, cultural heritage sites on the east bank and in surrounding areas are being cleaned and restored (see IHI 17-0016 UPDATE, IHI 17-0027, IHI 17-0028, IHI 17-0032, IHI 17-0033, and IHI 17-0034 in Appendix pp. 80–89, 107–112, 125–155). The Mosul University campus (IHI 17-0032) represents one of the more significant areas of restoration. Constructed in the 1960s, Mosul University was one of the largest educational and research centers in the Middle East. After ISIL seized Mosul in 2014, they re-opened the university under their authority, mainly to train professionals in the medical, chemical, and engineering fields. ISIL also reused buildings and laboratories as headquarters and weapons facilities leading to the US-led Coalition targeting of university buildings in 2016. Following the liberation of the campus earlier this year, assessment teams and journalists were able to document the full extent of the damage to buildings, equipment, and collections. One of the hardest hit buildings was the Mosul University Library. The library contained 3,500 rare books, some dating back to the early 18th century. The library also contained 5,000 rare government publications dating back to 1921. Reports surfaced in February 2015 that ISIL had ransacked the library and burned 100,000 books and manuscripts. Recent photographs show the extent of this destruction with severe structural damage from both ISIL and US-led Coalition airstrikes, as well as charred books and fire damage to the majority of the structure. Local activist group Mosul Eye along with students from all departments are helping to clean the structure and to gather any remaining books. Libraries and universities from across the world have pledged support, materials, and books to help rebuild the library. In other university buildings, professors and students are working together to clean the buildings and repair what they can before classes resume in September.

Libya

Despite the alleged involvement of Libyan elements of ISIL in the Manchester, UK attack on May 22 and the Minya, Egypt attack on May 26, enough peace prevails in Libya that construction projects continue in many parts of the country. Private citizens and local real estate cooperatives have taken advantage of the lack of rule of law and are destroying heritage sites to make way for new development. During this reporting period, members of the Department of Antiquities in both the east and west of Libya reported three instances in which a previously recorded heritage site has been destroyed during a new building project without the consent of the local or regional authorities (see LHI 17-0002, LHI 17-0003, LHI 17-0004 in Appendix pp. 162–168). At the time of reporting, neither the retaliatory airstrikes launched by the Egyptian Air Force on purported ISIL training camps in the hills to the south of Derna, nor the strikes of the Libyan National Army under the command of Khalifa Haftar on the Brak al Shati Airbase controlled by the Tripoli-based Government of National Accord appear to have damaged cultural heritage sites.

ASOR Cultural Heritage Initiatives Monthly Report (April 2017)

ASOR Cultural Heritage Initiatives (CHI)
Safeguarding the Heritage of the Near East Initiative

April 2017 Monthly Report

S-IZ-100-17-CA021
By Michael D. Danti, Marina Gabriel, Susan Penacho, William Raynolds, Allison Cuneo, Kyra Kaercher, Darren Ashby

* This report is based on research conducted by the “Safeguarding the Heritage of the Near East Initiative.” Monthly reports reflect reporting from a variety of sources and may contain unverified material. As such, they should be treated as preliminary and subject to change.

Executive Summary

During the April reporting period, anti-ISIL operations continued around the group’s two remaining urban strongholds of Raqqa and Mosul. Near Raqqa, US-backed Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) continued to encircle Raqqa to prepare for the city’s recapture. US-led Coalition aerial bombardment increased over surrounding towns and villages, as well as over Raqqa itself. Raqqa contains many significant cultural heritage sites, most notably the archaeological mounds of Tell Bi’a and Tell Zeidan, the Raqqa Museum, and standing architecture of the Abbasid Caliphate. Most of Raqqa’s heritage sites have suffered severe damage during the conflict, largely as a result of ISIL intentional destructions, military repurposing, and looting. The SDF pressed into the strategic ISIL-held city of Tabqa (al-Thawrah) recapturing several neighborhoods. The area is significant for its nearby hydroelectric dam (Tabqa Dam), forming the impound lake (Lake Assad) on the Euphrates — an area rich in archaeological sites. ISIL consolidated territory in Deir ez-Zor Governorate, where US-backed Syrian opposition forces and pro-regime forces prepared for a new offensive. At least two heritage sites in ISIL-held Syria were damaged or destroyed during the reporting period.

SARG forces continue to advance against opposition-held territory in Rif Dimashq Governorate, where Russian and SARG aerial bombardment was continuous. Evacuation of opposition forces, pro-regime forces, and civilians between four towns in Rif Dimashq and Idlib Governorates was completed despite several delays. Aerial bombardment over major opposition-held areas in Syria continued with almost daily instances of SARG and Russian airstrikes and barrel bombings. At least 15 cultural sites in opposition-held areas were damaged or destroyed as a result.

In Mosul, Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) continued to advance into the final remaining ISIL-held neighborhoods. Clearing operations continued in recently recaptured neighborhoods, paving the way for displaced Mosul residents to return despite poor infrastructure. ISIL militants still held the historically significant Old City, site of al-Nuri al-Kabir Mosque, where ISIL leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi declared the creation of his “caliphate” in 2014. South of Mosul, Shia Iraqi forces of the Popular Mobilization Front (PMF) recaptured the ancient site of Hatra from ISIL. Footage from the recaptured area shows Hatra to be less damaged than some observers had anticipated based on propaganda videos shared by ISIL showing acts of intentional destruction. Portions of the ancient city appear to have been militarized for the militant’s use.

Key Points

  • New reporting reveals scope of damage to Omar Ibn al-Khattab Mosque in al-Jeineh, Aleppo Governorate. ASOR CHI Incident Report SHI 17-0038 UPDATE
  • Reported Russian airstrikes damage an Ottoman-era hammam (bathhouse) in Sarmin, Idlib Governorate. ASOR CHI Incident Report SHI 17-0072
  • New video footage provides more information on ISIL looting of the ancient site of Nineveh. ASOR CHI Incident Report IHI 15-0097 UPDATE
  • Popular Mobilization Front (PMF) captures the ancient site of Hatra from ISIL. ASOR CHI Incident Report IHI 17-0024
  • New photographs show the dismantling of a historic house in the Old City of Derna in Libya. ASOR CHI Incident Report LHI 17-0001

Syria

In Syria’s Idlib Governorate, aerial bombardment was seemingly intensified following an April 4 chemical weapons attack that killed at least 90 people in the town of Khan Sheikhoun. ASOR CHI recorded damage to four mosques, an Ottoman-era Hammam (bathhouse), and a Roman-era bridge across Idlib Governorate as a result of the ongoing SARG and Russian bombardment (see SHI 17-0066, SHI 17-0067, SHI 17-0068, SHI 17-0069, SHI 17-0070, SHI 17-0071, and SHI 17-0072 in Appendix pp. 59–76). Civilian casualties were reported in at least one of the strikes.

Syrian opposition forces, including factions of Islamist opposition forces, continue to hold territory in Rif Dimashq Governorate and have come under increasing aerial bombardment by the Syrian regime and Russian forces. ASOR CHI recorded damage to three mosques, including one mosque dated to the 11th Century CE, in opposition-held areas (see SHI 17-0055, SHI 17-0056, and SHI 17-0057 in Appendix pp. 29–38). All three of the mosques reportedly took direct fire in the forms of missiles and shells. At least two of the mosques had previously been damaged during the conflict.

As US-backed Syrian Democratic Forces advanced toward the ISIL-held stronghold of Raqqa, US-led Coalition airstrikes increased over neighboring towns and villages. Local reporting groups documented an increase in damage to cultural sites, including a mosque and a cultural center in Raqqa Governorate (see SHI 17-0064 and SHI 17-0065 in Appendix pp. 56–58). ISIL has often attempted to use such incidents for its anti-Coalition rhetoric and propaganda.

In addition, a March 2017 US-led Coalition airstrike that destroyed a mosque in Aleppo Governorate remains under investigation. Two new reports by Human Rights Watch and Forensic Architecture detail the extent of damage, and raise concerns regarding the accuracy of the information that led to the airstrike, reportedly authorized to target al-Qaeda affiliates in Syria (see SHI 17-0038 UPDATE in Appendix pp. 9–13).

Reduced combat kinetics in Aleppo has provided activists and others with opportunities to visit long-neglected heritage sites and initiate emergency response projects. ASOR CHI noted three cleanup and reconstruction efforts in the Old City of Aleppo (see SHI 17-0050, SHI 17-0051, SHI 17-0052 in Appendix p. 18–24). Often local residents (some with guidance from Syrian experts) have spearheaded these projects. These site visits and preservation efforts are uncovering new evidence of conflict-related cultural heritage incidents, such as thefts, that occurred during armed conflict between the Syrian regime and opposition forces in the Old City.

Other cleanup and reconstruction efforts are underway in al-Bab City, where at least four mosques were heavily damaged by clashes between ISIL and Turkish-backed Syrian opposition forces (see SHI 17-0058, SHI 17-0059, SHI 17-0060, in Appendix p. 39–47). According to interviews with local residents, including a local imam, militants co-opted one of the mosques for use as an ISIL headquarters with the basement serving as a makeshift prison. Another mosque, now significantly damaged and undergoing cleanup efforts, was featured in an earlier ISIL recruitment video. DigitalGlobe satellite imagery shows additional detail of damage to mosques in al-Bab, likely as a result of US-led Coalition and Turkish airstrikes.

Iraq

With the advance of Iraqi Security Forces in Mosul, the extent of damage wrought by ISIL is becoming clearer. Recent video footage details the construction of a road through the ancient site of Nineveh, allegedly built and used by ISIL militants to facilitate the looting and selling of antiquities (see IHI 15-0097 UPDATE in Appendix p. 86–89). Local residents recall ISIL using the road to traffic out antiquities, threatening local Mosul residents with amputations if they attempted to enter the site. Although Nineveh is now under the control of Iraqi Security Forces, ASOR CHI remains concerned as to the security of the ancient site of Nineveh as it is unclear what measures, if any, have been taken to reduce the risk of continuing looting or vandalism.

ISIL militants in Mosul continue to target Iraqi civilians as they attempt to escape from areas of the city that remain under the group’s control. ISIL militants have reportedly stationed themselves inside civilian sites ranging from mosques to residential buildings in order to maximize civilian casualties in the event of an airstrike by the US-led Coalition. The Old City of Mosul will be a major flashpoint in the upcoming battles for control of ISIL-held neighborhoods. ASOR CHI remains extremely concerned for the fate of civilians and the cultural heritage sites that are densely packed in this neighborhood, including al-Nuri al-Kabir Mosque, where ISIL leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi announced the creation of his ‘caliphate’ in 2014. The mosque has already sustained heavy damage to the dome (see IHI 17-0023 in Appendix p. 98–99).

On April 26, 2017 the Popular Mobilization Front (PMF) captured the ancient site of Hatra from ISIL (see IHI 17-0024 in Appendix p. 100–120). New photographs and video footage showed less damage to the site than previously feared. The site appears to have been used by the group for military training; items such as a climbing rope and a shooting range are apparent in several recent photographs of the site. ASOR CHI remains concerned as to the security of the ancient site of Hatra given its remote desert location. Following the recapture of the site, the current security situation remains unclear, and we are currently unable to verify whether Iraqi officials have implemented security measures to protect the site from further damage or looting. Other ancient sites in Iraq, including the recently recaptured site of Nimrud, lack security and remain vulnerable to looting and vandalism.

Across the Nineveh Plains, local residents from majority-Christian and Yezidi towns and villages have participated in cleanup and reconstruction efforts. Infrastructure in the area remains poor, with limited access to clean water and electricity, limiting the ability of displaced residents to return. Easter masses were celebrated in at least one village, despite the poor conditions of the churches in the area. New information is also arising as to how ISIL used the churches and other religious sites in the Nineveh villages and towns. Many churches and monasteries were used as weapons caches, military training sites, and bed-down sites. The same sites were destroyed as Peshmerga and Iraqi Christian militias advanced against ISIL. Cemeteries of all faiths were also targeted for vandalism and looting (see IHI 16-0042 Update in Appendix p. 90–94).

Libya

In Libya, heavy clashes occurred between the Operations Room of the Government of National Accord (GNA) and the Libyan National Army (LNA) forces commanded by Khalifa Haftar around the Tamanhint Airbase outside of the southern city of Sebha. LNA airstrikes targeted Dernah and several neighborhoods in Benghazi. This ongoing violence does not appear to have damaged cultural heritage sites. Generally, violent skirmishes decreased, allowing the Turkish Embassy to reopen its consular affairs section in Tripoli and oil production to resume in Libya’s largest oil field, al Sharara. In Dernah, which celebrated one year of liberation from ISIL forces this month, a period of relative stability has allowed for redevelopment efforts to occur. These efforts, unfortunately, have encroached on key cultural heritage sites. ASOR CHI has documented one Ottoman-era house that is in the process of being dismantled (see LHI 17-0001 in Appendix p. 121–123). ASOR CHI remains concerned as to this trend, especially as it relates to standing cultural heritage sites as well as development encroachment over unexcavated archaeological sites. ASOR CHI will be expanding its coverage of Libya in the coming months with a focus on risk to cultural heritage sites.